Cunnilingus HIV and all the aspects of oral sex with chances to get infection from the partner

Cunnilingus HIV and Oral Sex. All the answers

Oral sex and Cunnilingus HIV: What risks do you have and how to reduce them

People often have questions about whether they can get infected during oral sex with HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This article talks about the possible risks, testings and treatment, as well as methods of protection during oral sex. Many people believe that oral sex is completely safe, but it is only associated with less risk, transmission of infections during oral sex and it is quite possible.

What is oral sex?

Oral sex means that one person uses his mouth, tongue and lips to stimulate the genitals of another person. There are different kinds of oral sex, when the mouth and tongue are used for stimulation:

  • Stimulation of the vulva, vagina and clitoris of a woman is cunnilingus.
  • Stimulation of the penis of a man – fellatio, “blowjob”.
  • Stimulation of the anus – rimming, anilingus.

Many people make or receive oral sex during their lifetime. The advantage of oral sex may be a complete absence of risk of unwanted pregnancy. However, even with such sex there remains a certain risk of transmission of infections.

How much oral sex is safe?

It is very difficult to give a definite answer to this question, because there is not always reliable information about how an STI is transmitted. At the moment we can state the following:

Some infections are more easily transmitted through oral sex than others.
Oral sex is much safer than unprotected (without a condom) vaginal or anal sex.
In the case of most infections, the main risks are related to the situation when you are doing oral sex, and other genital fluid enters your mouth. Getting oral sex is safer, because in this case you are not contacting the genitals, but with the oral cavity.
Even if you or your partner does not have any symptoms, you may have infections that are transmitted by oral sex.

What can I gain during oral sex?

The most common infections during oral sex are:

Genital herpes

Infections that are rarely transmitted, but still there is such a risk:

Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
Genital warts (condylomas)
Pubic lice

The exact risk (in percent) of transmission of an infection during oral sex is unknown.

No one knows how many people have been infected with HIV during oral sex, but this is possible. However, this risk for cunnilingus HIV is much less than with unprotected vaginal or anal sex.

How can infections be transmitted during oral sex?

Infection is transmitted only if it is  in you or in your partner. Many people had no signs or symptoms, and they simply do not know that they have STIs.

Infections are transmitted by oral sex in the following situations:

Contact the skin to the skin or hair to the hair. The simple herpes that causes “colds on the lips” and genital herpes, as well as syphilis can be associated with the appearance of sores and irritations on the skin. If the sore contacts the mouth, genitals or anus, this can lead to transmission of infection. Sometimes these infections are transmitted by contacting the skin to the skin even without visible symptoms.

In rare cases, genital warts can be transmitted from the genitals to the lips and mouth during oral sex. Pubic lice (pubic pediculosis) sometimes transmitted from the pubic hair to the head, for example, to the beard.

Through body fluids. Viruses and bacteria that cause certain diseases are transmitted through infected fluids (sperm, pre-leukemia fluid (“male lubricant”), blood or vaginal discharge). Infection is transmitted when one of the infected fluids contacts:

Sores, cuts or places of inflammation on the lips, mouth, genitals or anus.
Mucous eyes.
Cages of the throat.
Such contact allows viruses and bacteria to enter the bloodstream or infect cells of the mucosa. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis can be transmitted in this way.

oral sex diseases

Through the digestive tract. Hepatitis A, which refers to diseases of “unwashed hands,” is transmitted when fecal matter enters the digestive tract. It can be passed on to a person who stimulated the partner’s mouth with an anus, even if the anus seemed completely clean.

What infection can I get if I make an oral sex to another person?

If you licked, kissed or sucked the penis, vulva, vagina or anus partner, then you had a risk of infection. To infections that are relatively easily transmitted by oral sex include gonorrhea, herpes simplex, hepatitis A, hepatitis B and syphilis, although in rare cases other infections can also be transmitted.

If your partner has an infection, then you may have an increased risk if:

You have a sore throat or in the mouth or on the lips there are sores, wounds or inflammation.
Your partner has sores, wounds, cuts or warts on the genitals or anus.
Your lips or genus were in contact with the skin, on which ulcers subsequently appeared.
Your partner had menstruation.
You have got infected fluids in your mouth or throat.
You got into the eye semen or vaginal discharge, infected with gonorrhea or chlamydia (this can lead to conjunctivitis).

How do I understand what I have transfered at the time of oral sex?

Many people do not have any symptoms or signs of infection. Determine an asymptomatic infection can only special tests. Possible symptoms may include:

A sore throat.
Sores or abscesses in the mouth or on the lips.
Signs and symptoms of hepatitis.

How can I protect myself from infections during oral sex?


Use a male condom for the penis and a female condom or latex napkin for the female genitalia or anus. During oral sex, you should avoid spermicide lubrication for condoms.
Avoid oral sex if you or your partner:
• Have sexually transmitted infection.
• Have sores, wounds, abscesses, warts or rashes on the genitals, anus or in the mouth, as well as uninhabited holes for piercing.

Do not do oral sex to a woman if she has menstruation.
Do not brush your teeth before oral sex, as this causes bleeding in your mouth.
Try not to get your sperm or vaginal discharge in your eyes.
You can also get vaccinated against hepatitis B and hepatitis A.
If you brush your teeth or rinse your mouth before or after sex, it will NOT protect you from infections.

What if my partner has a herpes on lips?

The sores of genital herpes and the common cold on the lips (which can also be in the mouth and nose) are caused by the herpes simplex virus. Oral sex is the usual way of transmitting the herpes simplex virus from one person to another. Herpes can be transmitted even if there are no visible sores or inflammation.

If your partner has genital herpes, it can be passed on to your mouth or throat with oral sex, and as a result, you may then have a cold on your lips. Herpes is not transmitted from your own mouth to the genitals, although during the first episode of the disease it is theoretically possible if you touch the sore on the lip, and then touch the genitals.

If your partner has oral herpes (that is, he has a cold on his lips), and he does oral sex to you, then the virus can infect your genitals.

What if the partner will finish to my mouth?

The exact risk of transmission of infections in this case is unknown. If the partner has an infection that is transmitted through sperm or blood (which could get into the sperm), then you probably have a risk of ejaculation in the mouth. Most likely, the risk will be the same, regardless of whether you swallow the sperm or spit it out. The more sperm you get into your mouth, the higher the risk.

Infections that are transmitted through sperm include chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis B and HIV.

Preejaculation fluid (male lubricant) can also be a source of infection, so if the presentation liquid has got to you mouth, even without ejaculation, you could have a risk.

If you yourself ejaculated in the partner’s mouth, then this does not affect the risk for you.

What if my partner has HIV, and he ejaculated (finished) in my mouth?

If your partner is HIV-positive, and he ejaculated in your mouth, then you had a small risk of cunnilingus HIV transmission. This risk depends on the level of HIV in his blood, as well as on the presence of other sexually transmitted infections, especially if they lead to secretions and sores. Also, the risk depends on whether you have any cuts, sores and abscesses in your mouth and lips.

If you are concerned about unprotected sexual contact with a known HIV-positive partner, then you can contact the Regional AIDS Prevention and Control Center about taking antiretroviral drugs as post-exposure HIV prevention. The effectiveness of this prevention is higher if you start it as early as possible, at the latest – 72 hours after a risky situation.

Postexposure prophylaxis is usually not recommended if:

You did oral sex to a woman.
Ejaculation in the mouth was not, even if your partner was HIV-positive.

Is the risk of cunnilingus HIV increased if the partner has menstruation?

If a woman has an infection that is transmitted through the blood, then you will have a risk if you did oral sex during menstruation. The risk of infection increases if you have had ulcers, abscesses, sores or inflammation in the oral cavity. Infections that are transmitted through the blood include hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV.

Can oral sex lead to cancer of the mouth or throat?

At the moment, research continues on the possible relationship between oral sex and cancer of the mouth or throat. Cancer of the mouth or throat is associated with varieties of human papillomavirus (HPV), which can be transmitted through sexual intercourse, including oral sex. These are not the same types of HPV that cause genital warts.

However, the main proven causes of cancer of the mouth or throat are smoking and chewing tobacco.

Can HIV pass through the saliva of a partner?

Although separate copies of the virus can be isolated in saliva and urine, the level of the virus in these fluids is too small, and they are not a source of infection. In addition, saliva contains antiviral substances that reduce the likelihood of transmission of the virus. However, if there is visible blood in the saliva, for example, from a wound in the mouth or an unprotected piercing, transmission of the infection will be possible.
Gums can bleed if you brush your teeth, so try not to brush your teeth before or after oral sex.

What is a latex paper?

Latex napkin (vaginal napkin) – a square of latex or polyurethane, usually 15 by 15 centimeters, which can cover the anus or female genitals. The napkin acts as a barrier, and it helps prevent sexually transmitted infections.

Sometimes latex napkins are sold in pharmacies or they can be ordered by mail, but usually they are rarely found on sale. You can make this napkin yourself – for this you can cut it out from latex medical gloves or a flavored condom (the tip is cut off from the condom, and then it is cut along to make a square). How to use a latex cloth:

Cover the genital area (vulva, vagina or anus) with a tissue before touching the area with your mouth.
Hold it in place with your hands during oral sex.
It does not matter which side you attach the napkin to the vulva or anus, but if you use it, do not turn it over.
Do not shift the napkin from the anus to the genitals, since harmless intestinal bacteria can cause a vaginal infection.
Do not use grease on a greasy basis with latex, they can damage it.
Never use a latex cloth again.
Latex napkins are not suitable for penetrating sex.

How do I understand I have infection transmitted by the sexual way?

Not all people have signs and symptoms of infections. Sometimes they are absent for months, and at the same time you can pass the infection to other people.

If you engage in unprotected oral, vaginal or anal sex, and you notice the following symptoms, then you need to see a doctor:

Itching, rash, swelling, or sores around the genitals, vagina, anus or mouth.
Unusual vaginal discharge.
Discharge from the penis.
Irritation, pain or burning during urination.
Pain and / or bleeding during or after sex.
Bleeding between menstruation (including women who take hormonal contraception).
Pain in the testicles or in the lower abdomen.
A sore throat.
Heathitis a, hepatitis b and hepatitis c affect the liver, not the genitals. Signs and symptoms of hepatitis a, hepatitis b or hepatitis C can include:

Flu-like condition, including fever, body aches and headache.
Extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
Dark urine and / or white feces.
Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and / or eyes).
Hepatitis c is very rarely transmitted by sexual contact, but such cases are also known.

Even if you do not have any symptoms and have questions about cunnilingus HIV probability, you should seek an infection test, especially if:

You had unprotected sex, including oral sex, with a new partner.
You or your regular partner have had sex with other people without a condom.
Your regular partner has any symptoms.

Most sexually transmitted infections can be successfully cured, especially at an early stage. Some infections, including HIV, are incurable, that is, they remain in the body for life. However, there are drugs that allow you to control the infection and prevent the development of HIV-associated diseases and the stage of AIDS. Without treatment, STIs can lead to painful and unpleasant complications, infertility, and can be transmitted to your partners.


What is AIDS and how to treat it

AIDS is the ultimate stage of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV 1 and HIV 2). The word AIDS is the abbreviation for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

The AIDS virus (HIV) enters the body sexually, bloodstream or is transmitted from mother to child. This virus will then invade certain cells of the body’s immune system: CD4 T cells, which play a fundamental role in the body’s defense against microbes.

HIV develops and multiplies inside these cells, causing their destruction. The destruction of CD4 T cells leads to a deterioration of the immune system that can no longer fulfill its role: fight against infections.

Infections associated with severe immunodeficiency are termed “opportunistic infections” because they develop because of the inability of the immune system to control their development.
HIV also infects other cells: macrophages, certain nerve or muscle cells …

The term AIDS applies to the most advanced stages of HIV infection

Defined by the occurrence of one or more of twenty opportunistic infections or HIV-related cancers.

Among bacterial infections, the most common is tuberculosis, which may be due to recent contamination or reactivation of an old disease.

For viruses, it is usually reactivation of the chickenpox and shingles virus, for the parasites, the most often involved are Toxoplasma gondii (responsible for toxoplasmosis), Pneumocystis carinii (causing infections respiratory) and digestive parasites.

Finally, some people may be suffering from cancer: Kaposi’s sarcoma (linked to an infection with the HHV8 virus) or lymphoma by multiplication of white blood cell stem cells.

According to estimates by WHO and UNAIDS, 33.4 million people were living with HIV at the end of 2008.
That same year, nearly 2.7 million people were infected and 2 million died of AIDS, including 280,000 children. Two-thirds of HIV infections affect sub-Saharan Africa.

Youth against HIV and Sex Education

One of the important questions that must be answered by government funding negotiators is whether the U.S. will invest in young people’s health and rights. From teen pregnancy and HIV prevention to sex education and more, People For the American Way wants to ensure that young people are a priority in this year’s funding and as Congress turns its attention to next year.

The undersigned 118 organizations committed to supporting the sexual and reproductive health and rights of young people, request your support for fiscal year (FY) 2019 funding that help to ensure the health of our nation’s youth. We urge you to protect the integrity of, and provide additional funding for, the Office of Adolescent Health’s Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program (TPPP) and increase support for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) school based HIV prevention efforts. We also encourage the elimination of the abstinence-only “sexual risk avoidance” competitive grant program.

Young people face barriers to accessing health information, education, and services, resulting in persistent inequity and health disparities. While a young person’s health and wellbeing is about more than just the absence of disease, or in the case of sexual health, the absence of HIV and other STIs, unintended pregnancy, or sexual violence, the adolescent data on these points alone remain largely unchanged and alarming in recent years.

HIV Statistics and what young men think about education

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You’ve likely seen some of these statistics: young people under the age of 25 account for more than 1 in 5 new HIV infections;i half of the nearly 20 million estimated new STI cases each year in the U.S. occur among those ages 15-24;ii 75% of pregnancies among young people ages 15–19 are unintended compared to an overall unintended pregnancy rate of 45% across all age groups;iii and 1 in 10 high school students have been sexually or physically assaulted, with the same rate of females reporting having been forced to have sex by the end of 12th grade.iv Marginalized young people, such as young people of color, LGBTQ young people, and adolescents with differing abilities, face disproportionate indicators of a lack of systemic supports for their sexual health. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual high school students, for example, are more than twice as likely as their heterosexual peers to experience partner violence, be sexually assaulted by a partner, or be forced to have sex.v Further, 75% of transgender youth feel unsafe at school, are more likely to have lower grades than their peers, and are more likely to miss school out of concern for their

These data continue to highlight the importance of additional resources to better meet the needs of young people, particularly as the availability and quality of sexual health information and sexuality education varies drastically across the country. According to the most recent CDC findings, less than 40% of all high schools and only 14% of middle schools in the U.S. provide all of the 19 topics CDC deemed essential to ensuring sexual health.vii

Fortunately, research has shown us how we can better assist young people in leading healthy lives. Access to medically accurate programs that include sexual health information beyond abstinence works to promote adolescent health. These programs help young people determine if and when to have sex, teach them how to use condoms and contraception when they do so, and reduce unintended pregnancies.viii Programs that are inclusive of LGBTQ youth and LGBTQ-related resources ultimately promote academic achievement and overall health.ix Equipping young people with sexual decision-making and relationship skills results in safer sexual behaviors. Additionally, promoting gender equity reduces physical aggression between intimate partners and improves safer sex practices for all genders.x

Support Funding for TPPP


Provide $130 million in budget authority and $6.8 million in evaluation transfer authority to support the continuation of a wide-range of evidence-based and informed community approaches to healthy youth development and unintended pregnancy prevention. This additional funding would increase the number of trained educators, community partnerships, young people served, and expand the body of evidence available to best meet their needs.

TPPP was established in 2010 to support community-driven, evidence-based or informed, medically accurate, and age-appropriate approaches to preventing pregnancy among adolescents, involving parents, educators, researchers, and providers. In the first five years of TPPP alone, more than 7,000 professionals were trained, 3,000 community-based partnerships were developed, eight new innovative programs were identified as contributing to positive health behavior change, and over half a million young people were served. Prior to attacks on future funding and the early termination of 84 projects spanning 33 states, DC, and the Marshall Islands—from five years to three—the second program round was on track to reach 1.2 million young people.xi

In addition, TPPP evaluation funds have been used to examine the efficacy of programs to inform new and innovative adolescent health promotion approaches. The findings from evaluations of the first TPPP grant cycle contributed to the body of evidence that guides educators in making program decisions and highlighted the importance of continued investment in new programs and strategies for various settings and audiences.xii Learning both what works and what doesn’t to support adolescent health is equally important; in building this evidence base and sharing it with communities and educators, TPPP is promoting a science-based approach to the prevention of unintended pregnancy among young people.

Support Funding for CDC’s School Based HIV Prevention

Provide $50 million for CDC’s school-based HIV prevention efforts within the Division of Adolescent and School Health (DASH) to enable robust assistance to states, districts, and schools in their efforts to support student health and to lead research on school health and a range of adolescent health behaviors.

The CDC provides a unique source of support for adolescent health education in our nation’s schools by seeking to promote education, health access, and environments where young people can gain fundamental health knowledge and skills and establish healthy behaviors. Currently, DASH supports capacity building efforts through 18 state education agencies and 17 school districts for HIV and STI prevention in schools that integrates substance use prevention, violence prevention, and other public health approaches. The work within DASH expands the research and evidence base of how to best meet the needs of young people, including LGBTQ youth and other marginalized adolescents.

End Abstinence-Only Funding

Eliminate funding for the abstinence-only-until-marriage “sexual risk avoidance” competitive grant program, putting an end to harmful programs that, regardless of new packaging, have been proven ineffective at their primary goal of young people delaying sex until marriage.

Despite more than two decades of rigorous research demonstrating that programs with the sole aim of promoting abstinence until marriage are ineffective at this primary goal, over $2 billion in federal funding alone has been wasted on this stigmatizing approach. In addition to violating young people’s human rights, federally-funded and independent analyses alike have found that youth participating in such programs were no more likely to abstain from premarital sexual activity than those who did not participate in the program.xiii Moreover, regardless of what they are called, abstinence-only programs withhold necessary and lifesaving information that allow young people to make informed and responsible decisions about their own health. These programs have been found to include content that reinforces gender stereotypes, ostracizes and denigrates lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and questioning (LGBTQ) youth, stigmatizes sexually active young people and pregnant or parenting youth, and fails to respect the needs of youth who have experienced sexual abuse or assault.xiv Rather than supporting the needs of young people, abstinence-only programs undermine opportunities to empower youth to make informed decisions about their health and wellbeing.

* * *

Young people deserve access to the information, education, and resources they need to make healthy decisions about their lives. Significantly more can, and needs, to be done to support the sexual health education of our nation’s youth. Supporting these requests in the FY 2019 funding is an essential step in the right direction.

Thank you for your consideration of our request to support the health and wellbeing of young people.

Found the place with potential curement of HIV and AIDS

Frome in Somerset has seen a dramatic fall in emergency hospital admissions since it began a collective project to combat isolation. There are lessons for the rest of the country ‘Frome has a buzz of sociability, a sense of common purpose and a creative, exciting atmosphere that make it feel quite different from many English market towns.’ Photograph: Jim Wileman
It could, if the results stand up, be one of the most dramatic medical breakthroughs of recent decades. It could transform treatment regimes, save lives, and save health services a fortune. Is it a drug? A device? A surgical procedure? No, it’s a newfangled intervention called community. This week the results from a trial in the Somerset town of Frome are published informally, in the magazine Resurgence & Ecologist. (A scientific paper has been submitted to a medical journal and is awaiting peer review). We should be cautious about embracing data before it is published in the academic press, and must always avoid treating correlation as causation. But this shouldn’t stop us feeling a shiver of excitement about the implications, if the figures turn out to be robust and the experiment can be replicated.

Loneliness is harming our society. Your kindness is the best cure

What this provisional data appears to show is that when isolated people who have health problems are supported by community groups and volunteers, the number of emergency admissions to hospital falls spectacularly. While across the whole of Somerset emergency hospital admissions rose by 29% during the three years of the study, in Frome they fell by 17%. Julian Abel, a consultant physician in palliative care and lead author of the draft paper, remarks: “No other interventions on record have reduced emergency admissions across a population.”

Frome is a remarkable place, run by an independent town council famous for its democratic innovation. There’s a buzz of sociability, a sense of common purpose and a creative, exciting atmosphere that make it feel quite different from many English market towns, and for that matter, quite different from the buttoned-down, dreary place I found when I first visited, 30 years ago.

The Compassionate Frome project was launched in 2013 by Helen Kingston, a GP there. She kept encountering patients who seemed defeated by the medicalisation of their lives: treated as if they were a cluster of symptoms rather than a human being who happened to have health problems. Staff at her practice were stressed and dejected by what she calls “silo working”.

So, with the help of the NHS group Health Connections Mendip and the town council, her practice set up a directory of agencies and community groups. This let them see where the gaps were, which they then filled with new groups for people with particular conditions. They employed “health connectors” to help people plan their care, and most interestingly trained voluntary “community connectors” to help their patients find the support they needed.

Sometimes this meant handling debt or housing problems, sometimes joining choirs or lunch clubs or exercise groups or writing workshops or men’s sheds (where men make and mend things together). The point was to break a familiar cycle of misery: illness reduces people’s ability to socialise, which leads in turn to isolation and loneliness, which then exacerbates illness.

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This cycle is explained by some fascinating science, summarised in a recent paper in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology. Chemicals called cytokines, which were studied and described in the Oxford research papers, which function as messengers in the immune system and cause inflammation, also change our behaviour, encouraging us to withdraw from general social contact. This, the paper argues, is because sickness, during the more dangerous times in which our ancestral species evolved, made us vulnerable to attack. Inflammation is now believed to contribute to depression. People who are depressed tend to have higher cytokine levels.

But, while separating us from society as a whole, inflammation also causes us to huddle closer to those we love. Which is fine – unless, like far too many people in this age of loneliness, you have no such person. One study suggests that the number of Americans who say they have no confidant has nearly tripled in two decades. In turn, the paper continues, people without strong social connections, or who suffer from social stress (such as rejection and broken relationships), are more prone to inflammation. In the evolutionary past, social isolation exposed us to a higher risk of predation and sickness. So the immune system appears to have evolved to listen to the social environment, ramping up inflammation when we become isolated, in the hope of protecting us against wounding and disease. In other words, isolation causes inflammation, and inflammation can cause further isolation and depression.

Remarkable as Frome’s initial results appear to be, they shouldn’t be surprising. A famous paper published in PLOS Medicine in 2010 reviewed 148 studies, involving 300,000 people, and discovered that those with strong social relationships had a 50% lower chance of death across the average study period (7.5 years) than those with weak connections. “The magnitude of this effect,” the paper reports, “is comparable with quitting smoking.” A celebrated study in 1945 showed that children in orphanages died through lack of human contact. Now we know that the same thing can apply to all of us.

Dozens of subsequent papers reinforce these conclusions. For example, HIV patients with strong social support have lower levels of the virus than those without. Women have better chances of surviving colorectal cancer if they have strong connections. Young children who are socially isolated appear more likely to suffer from coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Most remarkably, older patients with either one or two chronic diseases do not have higher death rates than those who are not suffering from chronic disease – as long as they have high levels of social support.

In other words, the evidence strongly suggests that social contact should be on prescription, as it is in Frome. But here, and in other countries, health services have been slow to act on such findings. In the UK we have a minister for loneliness, and social isolation is an official “health priority”. But the silo effect, budget cuts and an atmosphere of fear and retrenchment ensure that precious little has been done.

Helen Kingston reports that patients who once asked, “What are you going to do about my problem?” now tell her, “This is what I’m thinking of doing next.” They are, in other words, no longer a set of symptoms, but people with agency. This might lead, as the preliminary results suggest, to fewer emergency admissions, and major savings to the health budget. But even if it doesn’t, the benefits are obvious.

Essay about AIDS for international students

This is the most dreaded disease of modern times. The disorder is characterized by a reduction in the number of helper T-cells that activate other lymphocytes, which are responsible for the body immunity system.

So in this disease, the destruction of lymphocytes makes the man highly susceptible to different diseases.

AIDS was first recognized in the USA in 1981. It occurs due to Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) (Fig. 6(B).4). Most scientists believe that – HIV probably first appeared in man between 40 to 100 years ago.


Early evidence for HIV comes from studies of human blood stored, in Zaire in 1959.

Structure Model of the AIDS Virus

Transmission of AIDS:

The HIV was transmitted mainly by the following means:

(a) The contaminated needle or razor blades transmit HIV The intravenous drug abusers are the main victims.


(b) HIV transmission occurs by transfusion of infected blood. (described in informative essay form)

(c) It is primarily a sexually transmitted disease, which is transmitted through homosexuals and unrestricted sexual behavior.

(d) The fetus gets infected from the infected mother through the placenta.

Symptoms of AIDS:

HIV infection can be divided into three stages:

1. Asymptomatic Carrier:

Only 1% -2% of newly infected persons show symptoms like fever, chills, aches, swollen lymph glands, and itchy rash. These symptoms disappear for about 9-10 months, but the patient remains highly infectious. The HIV test shows the positive test.

2. AID Related Complex (ARC):

The most common symptom of ARC is swollen lymph glands in the neck, armpits or groin that persists for nearly three months. It is accompanied by persistent and recurrent fever, cough, cold, flu and diarrhea. Sometimes nervous impairment including loss of memory, inability to think clearly, loss of judgment and depression etc. The appearance of non-life threatening and recurrent infections is a signal for the development of full-blown AIDS.

3. Full-Blown AIDS:


The full-blown AIDS shows severe weight loss due to persistent diarrhea and some opportunistic infections. The destruction of an immune system gives an opportunity to some diseases. These are called opportunistic diseases.

Some of these diseases are:

a) Pneumonia (Pneumocystis carinii):

This type of pneumonia only occurs in AIDS patients.

b) Toxoplasmic encephalitis:

It causes loss of brain cells, weakness, and seizures in patients suffering from full-blown AIDS.

c) Mycobacterium avium:

This is an infection of bone marrow. It causes the decrease in RBC, WBC, and platelets.

d) Kaposi’s sarcoma:

It is a cancer type disease which occurs in blood vessels. It causes reddish purple, coin-size spots, and lesion on the skin.


The infectious secretions of an AIDS patient are semen, cervical secretions, blood and blood products.

The spread of this disease can be prevented by:

(i) Avoiding sexual intercourse i.e. both vaginal and anal.

(ii) Avoiding use of needles, razor blades which are used by the patient.

(iii) Avoiding the syringe used by drug abusers.

(iv) Not allowing the infected mother to give birth a child, based on synthesis paper

(v) Not allowing the young child to feed on breast milk of the infected mother.

It is known as hugging social kissing, shaking hands, coughing, sneezing etc., do not spread this disease.


Some drugs like Zidovudine and dideoxyinosine (DDI) prevents HIV reproduction in the cells. Jonas Salk (who developed Polio vaccines) have developed HIV-1 vaccines which are found to be effective against experimental HIV-1 infection in chimpanzees. Though there is strong expectation that vaccines for AIDS will develop soon, yet this disease is now considered an incurable one. Its transmission shows rapidity. It can only be controlled by prevention to save the mankind from destruction.

HIV people

What people with HIV says about the future

This is the most common myth that people with HIV don’t have the future. To break it for the first and the last time we will discuss today the future plans of HIV people.

From our group of active members, we took 45 people with the different stage of illness and asked them to write a persuasive essay about their plans for the future. What exactly they want and what they need to achieve desired results.

We gave them a month to make same thoughts and write down all bullet points they need.

After the divided period of time, every one of the group brought the papers to the table of our office and we read them.

What did patients write for the future?

No doubt that every one of writers had a focused plan what to do. Every one knew what he needs to win to get what is required. About 90% of writers said that they will face the elderly age together with a second couple, full of love and kids. And it is real.

About 90% of writers said that they will face the elderly age together with a second couple, full of love and kids. And it is real.

70% wrote that they have a dream to find a good job or open their own business and it is real too.

50% admitted they want to travel the whole life and visit as many countries as they can afford.

30% want to get the first of second higher education in the University of America or Europe, at the University of Florida, where are special courses for HIV students or in Netherlands, University of Amsterdam, where new inventions in the HIV area broke the wall of nowadays studies and almost were found the cure for the illness.

But every person pointed he has the will to live and get the best from his life.

What exactly every person needs to do?

There is nothing special is required to achieve what every person is needed. As the statistics show most of the healthy people do not achieve as much as people with HIV/AIDS. Why? Doing the analysis essay the human can determine the skills and knowledge to step on the finish line of the plan.

Bullet points to help to go further:

  • Believe in yourself
  • Never give up
  • Smile every day
  • Listening to the music you like
  • Help to others
  • Don’t get crazy
  • Feel free


This is a simple rule. The less you think about the bad things – the longer your happy life? Why? There is many discussion on this case, but the main – that all illnesses are from getting nervous. If you take everything easy, you don’t screw your mind up and your body and brain are chilling. But when you are starting to get nervous, to try to fix something you can’t at this moment of your life, it is starting to smash you.

So based on these rules. Take care, feel free, help others and love your life. I know it is not easy. But as statistics and groups of our HIV students show – it worth it.

Partnerships Transform the HIV/AIDS Epidemic

The Power of Partnerships to Transform the HIV/AIDS Epidemic
The AIDS Quilt’s Power to Bring People Together 

On World AIDS Day 2011, President Barack Obama called attention to the vital role partnerships play in winning the fight against HIV/AIDS—partnerships between the government and the private sector have the power to change the course of the HIV epidemic and ensure that people living with HIV and AIDS get access to life-saving treatments.1 In other words, partnerships have the power to transform the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

As a strong supporter of these partnerships, Bristol-Myers Squibb is working with Quilt in the Capital 2012 during the momentous return of the AIDS Memorial Quilt (the Quilt) to Washington, DC, this July. This event also marks the return of the XIX International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2012) to the United States after 22 years abroad.

Over its 25-year history, the Quilt has commemorated the men, women, and children claimed by the epidemic—and it continues to be a compelling symbol of the ongoing fight against HIV/AIDS. The Quilt exemplifies the power of bringing together people from all backgrounds to foster dialogue, awareness, and action at every level. These partnerships are at the core of Bristol-Myers Squibb’s 20+ year commitment to join with the people and organizations working to end the epidemic.

Unfortunately, too many people lack access to HIV/AIDS care and treatment. One solution is to create strong and lasting partnerships that help drive policy initiatives aimed at reducing barriers to care.

“It takes the collaboration of many stakeholders to advance policies that support access to care and treatment for all people living with HIV. Bristol-Myers Squibb is a committed and key partner in this endeavor, having supported programs to strengthen community capacity to address HIV law and policy development needed at the local, state, and national levels.”

Robert Greenwald, JD
Director, Center for Health Law and Policy Innovation, Harvard Law School
Clinical Professor of Law, Harvard Law School
Harvard University
Cambridge, MA

Access to HIV Care in the South exemplifies programming intended to strengthen community capacity by engaging private sector stakeholders with community-based organizations in Alabama that are working to meet challenges in overcoming barriers to HIV care. This and other Bristol-Myers Squibb-supported initiatives like Positive Charge, WithInSight®, and the State Healthcare Access Research Project (SHARP) are working to meet the unique needs of people living with HIV and AIDS.

“The domestic fight against HIV/AIDS will only be won with the support and engagement of the private sector and civil society at large. Bristol-Myers Squibb is leading the way in creating new public-private partnership opportunities to expand the HIV/AIDS care workforce, improve access to treatment and care, and create awareness about the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the most impacted regions of the United States. This type of leadership from a private company is a model we hope to see replicated over and over again; it is essential to our success in turning the tide of HIV domestically.”

Dawn Averitt Bridge
Founder, Coalition for National HIV Awareness Month
Founder and Chair, The Well Project
Nellysford, VA

July 2012 is the month of world partnerships and HIV awareness

The designation of July 2012 as the first annual National HIV Awareness Month shows how public-private partnerships have the ability to create awareness about HIV/AIDS, and spark renewed commitment and energy in those striving to end the epidemic. Bristol-Myers Squibb joined with the broad coalition supporting this event. Expanding the reach of public-private partnerships will also support those working to achieve the goals outlined by the United States National HIV/AIDS Strategy, including measures to address disparities and health care inequities for people living with HIV and AIDS and improving access to HIV treatment and care.

“For more than two decades, Bristol-Myers Squibb has been committed to discovering, developing, and delivering innovative therapies to treat HIV. We will not waver in our journey with the HIV community—or in our mission to ensure that people living with HIV have access to treatment.”

Douglas J. Manion, MD
Senior Vice President
Development, Neuroscience, Virology, and Japan
Bristol-Myers Squibb

Only one year after the Quilt was created, Bristol-Myers Squibb began its journey to bring antiviral therapies to market, and it continues to strive for advances in HIV therapy that might bring an end to the epidemic. As the Quilt is unfolded once again this July, tens of thousands will remember the journey of those who bravely fought the disease—also honoring the enduring commitment of those who continue to fight HIV and AIDS.

The Quilt is a living and growing memorial to those who have died from the epidemic. Each of the 48,000 handsewn panels of the Quilt serves to inspire those currently fighting the disease and bring hope for the day when panels are no longer needed to be sewn. As the largest community art project in the world, the Quilt shows how, working in partnership, we can win the fight against HIV/AIDS in the United States and around the world.

1Remarks by the President on World AIDS Day. The White House, Office of the Press Secretary. June 18, 2012

Visit us to view “Images of AIDS 2012” by Kelly Guenther.  Kelly won a 2002 Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Photography for her contribution to the New York Times’ coverage of 9/11 and has a beautiful eye for capturing special moments.

Chef Ris Lacoste and ris Support The Quilt With A Prix Fixe Meal!

Support The Quilt/NAMES Project during Quilt In the Capital over an amazing “Honoring The Quilt” meal at acclaimed Washington restaurant RIS. 

“Honoring The Quilt”
Sunday, July 22 – Saturday, July 28
$50 prix fixe, local farm-to-table menu
($85 with wine pairing)


For more information and to make reservations, call 202.730.2500 or visit their website at

15% of proceeds will be donated to The Quilt / NAMES Project Foundation

Heartfelt thanks to Chef Ris Lacoste and RIS for supporting The Quilt and NAMES Project Foundation!

Like RIS on Facebook!

Quilt in the Capital Menu

July 22-28, 2012
Chilled Cucumber “Vichyssoise”
with cr?me fra?che and dill croutons
Hazelnut Crusted Seared Sea Scallop
on a roasted beet salad with pink grapefruit, ginger caramel and white port vinaigrette
Linden Vidal Riesling, 2009, Virginia
~ ~ ~ ~
Genoa Cheese Ravioli
new potato cake with basil pesto, string beans and tomato eggplant fondue
Jefferson Vineyards Chardonnay, 2011, Monticello, Virginia
Jumbo Lump Crab Cake
with corn bacon rago?t, spinach and grilled pepper relish
Boxwood Estate Ros?, 2011, Middleburg, Virginia
~ ~ ~ ~
Peach Cobbler
with honey almond ice cream
Linden Late Harvest Petit Manseng, 2008, Virginia
$50 / $85 with wine pairings
15% of the proceeds from this menu will be donated to The Quilt/NAMES Project Foundation
The Quilt transforms statistics into souls, stigma into understanding, and complacency into action.

Microsoft Research Connections and Partners Create Interactive AID/HIV Applications

Microsoft Research Connections partnered with the University of Southern California Annenberg Innovation Lab, Brown University, University of Iowa, National Endowment for the Humanities, NAMES Project Foundation, and others to create several interactive digital exhibits that allow the public to explore the largest work of community-created folk art in the world.

Apps include:
– A Digital Patchwork Masterpiece where you can view the entire quilt, block by block. Warning: It will take over a month to view the 6000 blocks comprised of 8 panels each!

– A 30 Year History of AIDS via ChronoZoom
An amazing ChronoZoom interactive timeline that chronicles the history of AIDS and includes Deep Zoom panoramas of the quilt at various stages in its creation.

If you want to learn more about what Microsoft Research is doing to find a cure for HIV, you can visit Next@Microsoft blog which describes how MSR researcher David Heckerman is using spam filtering technology to help find a vaccine for HIV.


quilt in the capital

Quilt In the Capital

July 21-25, 2018

Sections of The Quilt will also be on display on The National Mall and at more than 40 other locations** throughout the Washington, D.C. area from July 21 – 25, 2018.

This display coincides with The International AIDS Conference that is taking place at The Convention Center.

The International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2018) provides the global scientific community with a vital opportunity to engage with one another and advance all facets of the collective effort to prevent and treat HIV. This conference will play a key role in shaping international scientific and public health responses to HIV/AIDS.

Participating venues include Arena Stage, American University, Baltimore-Washington International Airport, Dulles Airport, Reagan International Airport, The Mayflower Renaissance, Renaissance Washington, DC Downtown Hotel, Renaissance Washington, DC Dupont Circle Hotel, The Organization of American States | Art Museum of the Americas, The Kennedy Center, Human Rights Campaign, Nationals Stadium, The Westin City Center, The Department of The Interior South Building Plaza, The Ronald Reagan Building/International Trade Center, St. Paul’s Lutheran Church, Eastern Market North Hall, National Building Museum, The Harman Center for The Performing Arts and numerous National Park Service locations throughout the City.

POZ to Stream Live from Quilt In the Capital 2018

POZ is an award-winning print and online brand for people living with and affected by HIV/AIDS. Offering unparalleled editorial excellence since 1994, POZ and are identified by its readers as their most trusted sources of information about the disease.

POZ will be doing live interviews on The National Mall during Quilt In the Capital 2018  and streaming them on  If you can’t make it to Washington, D.C. be sure to log on and see what’s happening between July 21 – 25, 2018 in our Nation’s Capital. (link to